Racial disparities in breast cancer treatment patterns and treatment related adverse events

  • Sung, H. et al. Global Cancer Statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J. Clin. 71(3), 209–249 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Siegel, R. L., Miller, K. D., Fuchs, H. E. & Jemal, A. Cancer statistics, 2022. CA Cancer J. Clin. 72(1), 7–33 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Cancer of the Breast (Female)—Cancer Stat Facts [Internet]. SEER. [cited 2022 Jun 1]. https://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html.

  • Waks, A. G. & Winer, E. P. Breast cancer treatment: A review. JAMA 321(3), 288–300 (2019).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Loibl, S., Poortmans, P., Morrow, M., Denkert, C. & Curigliano, G. Breast cancer. The Lancet 397(10286), 1750–1769 (2021).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ewertz, M. & Jensen, A. B. Late effects of breast cancer treatment and potentials for rehabilitation. Acta Oncol. 50(2), 187–193 (2011).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Shapiro, C. L. & Recht, A. Side effects of adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 344(26), 1997–2008 (2001).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Paraskevi, T. Quality of life outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Oncol Rev. 6(1), e2 (2012).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Leclerc, A. F., Jerusalem, G., Devos, M., Crielaard, J. M. & Maquet, D. Multidisciplinary management of breast cancer. Arch. Public Health 74(1), 50 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Zavala, V. A. et al. Cancer health disparities in racial/ethnic minorities in the United States. Br. J. Cancer 124(2), 315–332 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Esnaola, N. F. & Ford, M. E. Racial differences and disparities in cancer care and outcomes: Where’s the rub?. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 21(3), 417–viii (2012).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Gross, C. P., Smith, B. D., Wolf, E. & Andersen, M. Racial disparities in cancer therapy. Cancer 112(4), 900–908 (2008).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Iqbal, J., Ginsburg, O., Rochon, P. A., Sun, P. & Narod, S. A. Differences in breast cancer stage at diagnosis and cancer-specific survival by race and ethnicity in the United States. JAMA 313(2), 165–173 (2015).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Nahleh, Z. et al. Disparities in breast cancer: A multi-institutional comparative analysis focusing on American Hispanics. Cancer Med. 7(6), 2710–2717 (2018).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Rodriguez-Alcalá, M. E., Qin, H. & Jeanetta, S. The role of acculturation and social capital in access to health care: A meta-study on hispanics in the US. J. Commun. Health. 44(6), 1224–1252 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Parise, C. A., Bauer, K. R. & Caggiano, V. Variation in breast cancer subtypes with age and race/ethnicity. Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol. 76(1), 44–52 (2010).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Wheeler, S. B., Reeder-Hayes, K. E. & Carey, L. A. Disparities in breast cancer treatment and outcomes: Biological, social, and health system determinants and opportunities for research. Oncologist 18(9), 986–993 (2013).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Lund, M. J. et al. Parity and disparity in first course treatment of invasive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 109(3), 545–557 (2008).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Pinheiro, L. C., Reshetnyak, E., Safford, M. M. & Kern, L. M. Racial disparities in preventable adverse events attributed to poor care coordination reported in a national study of older US adults. Med. Care. 59(10), 901–906 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations—United States, 2001–2009 [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jun 24]. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/su6203a23.htm.

  • Bakullari, A. et al. Racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare-associated infections in the United States, 2009–2011. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 35(S3), S10–S16 (2014).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Stabellini, N. et al. Sex differences in esophageal cancer overall and by histological subtype. Sci. Rep. 12(1), 5248 (2022).

    Article 
    ADS 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Stabellini, N. et al. Sex differences in lung cancer treatment and outcomes at a large hybrid academic-community practice. JTO Clin. Res. Rep. 3(4), 100307 (2022).


    Google Scholar
     

  • Caisis | The Free & Open Source Cancer Data Management System [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 15]. http://www.caisis.org/.

  • EMERSE: Electronic Medical Record Search Engine [Internet]. [cited 2022 May 16]. https://project-emerse.org/index.html.

  • International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition (ICD-O-3) [Internet]. [cited 2021 Apr 15]. https://www.who.int/standards/classifications/other-classifications/international-classification-of-diseases-for-oncology.

  • Charlson, M. E., Pompei, P., Ales, K. L. & MacKenzie, C. R. A new method of classifying prognostic comorbidity in longitudinal studies: Development and validation. J. Chronic. Dis. 40(5), 373–383 (1987).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Giuliano, A. E., Edge, S. B. & Hortobagyi, G. N. Eighth edition of the AJCC cancer staging manual: Breast cancer. Ann. Surg. Oncol. 25(7), 1783–1785 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Makki, J. Diversity of Breast carcinoma: Histological subtypes and clinical relevance. Clin. Med. Insights Pathol. 21(8), 23–31 (2015).


    Google Scholar
     

  • HER2 Testing in Breast Cancer—2018 Focused Update [Internet]. College of American Pathologists. [cited 2022 Dec 11]. https://www.cap.org/protocols-and-guidelines/cap-guidelines/current-cap-guidelines/recommendations-for-human-epidermal-growth-factor-2-testing-in-breast-cancer.

  • Devlin, E. J., Denson, L. A. & Whitford, H. S. Cancer treatment side effects: A meta-analysis of the relationship between response expectancies and experience. J. Pain Symptom. Manag. 54(2), 245-258.e2 (2017).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • RStudio | Open source & professional software for data science teams [Internet]. [cited 2022 May 3]. https://www.rstudio.com/.

  • von Elm, E. et al. Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: Guidelines for reporting observational studies. BMJ 335(7624), 806–808 (2007).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Vince, R. A. et al. Reporting of racial health disparities research: Are we making progress?. J. Clin. Oncol. Off. J. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 40(1), 8–11 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Stanley, J., Harris, R., Cormack, D., Waa, A. & Edwards, R. The impact of racism on the future health of adults: Protocol for a prospective cohort study. BMC Public Health 19(1), 346 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Racism as a Determinant of Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [Internet]. [cited 2022 Jan 21]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0138511

  • Williams, D. R. & Mohammed, S. A. Racism and health I: Pathways and scientific evidence. Am. Behav. Sci. 57(8), 1152–1173 (2013).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Jones, C. P. Confronting institutionalized racism. Phylon 1960 50(1/2), 7–22 (2002).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Paradies, Y. C. Defining, conceptualizing and characterizing racism in health research. Crit. Public Health 16(2), 143–157 (2006).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Krieger, N. Methods for the scientific study of discrimination and health: An ecosocial approach. Am. J. Public Health. 102(5), 936–944 (2012).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Jones, C. P. Invited commentary: “Race”, racism, and the practice of epidemiology. Am. J. Epidemiol. 154(4), 299–304 (2001).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2018 [Internet]. SEER. [cited 2022 Jun 26]. https://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2018/index.html.

  • DeSantis, C. E. et al. Breast cancer statistics, 2019. CA Cancer J. Clin. 69(6), 438–451 (2019).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Daly, B. & Olopade, O. I. A perfect storm: How tumor biology, genomics, and health care delivery patterns collide to create a racial survival disparity in breast cancer and proposed interventions for change. CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(3), 221–238 (2015).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Stringer-Reasor, E. M., Elkhanany, A., Khoury, K., Simon, M. A. & Newman, L. A. Disparities in breast cancer associated With African American identity. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. Educ. Book Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. Annu. Meet. 41, e29-46 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Pitt, J. J. et al. Characterization of Nigerian breast cancer reveals prevalent homologous recombination deficiency and aggressive molecular features. Nat. Commun. 9(1), 4181 (2018).

    Article 
    ADS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Goel, N. et al. Racial differences in genomic profiles of breast cancer. JAMA Netw. Open. 5(3), e220573 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Keenan, T. et al. Comparison of the genomic landscape between primary breast cancer in African American versus white women and the association of racial differences with tumor recurrence. J. Clin. Oncol. Off. J. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 33(31), 3621–3627 (2015).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Dietze, E. C., Sistrunk, C., Miranda-Carboni, G., O’Regan, R. & Seewaldt, V. L. Triple-negative breast cancer in African–American women: Disparities versus biology. Nat. Rev. Cancer. 15(4), 248–254 (2015).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Ansell, D. et al. A community effort to reduce the black/white breast cancer mortality disparity in Chicago. Cancer Causes Control CCC. 20(9), 1681–1688 (2009).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Press, R., Carrasquillo, O., Sciacca, R. R. & Giardina, E. G. V. Racial/ethnic disparities in time to follow-up after an abnormal mammogram. J. Womens Health 2002 17(6), 923–930 (2008).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Silber, J. H. et al. Characteristics associated with differences in survival among black and white women with breast cancer. JAMA 310(4), 389–397 (2013).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Li, C. I., Malone, K. E. & Daling, J. R. Differences in breast cancer stage, treatment, and survival by race and ethnicity. Arch. Intern. Med. 163(1), 49–56 (2003).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Griggs, J. J. et al. Social and racial differences in selection of breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy regimens. J. Clin. Oncol. Off. J. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 25(18), 2522–2527 (2007).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Freedman, R. A., He, Y., Winer, E. P. & Keating, N. L. Trends in racial and age disparities in definitive local therapy of early-stage breast cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. Off. J. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 27(5), 713–719 (2009).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Griggs, J. J., Sorbero, M. E. S., Stark, A. T., Heininger, S. E. & Dick, A. W. Racial disparity in the dose and dose intensity of breast cancer adjuvant chemotherapy. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 81(1), 21–31 (2003).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bickell, N. A. et al. Missed opportunities: Racial disparities in adjuvant breast cancer treatment. J. Clin. Oncol. Off. J. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 24(9), 1357–1362 (2006).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Smith, K. et al. Ethnic disparities in adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer are not caused by excess toxicity in black patients. Clin. Breast Cancer 6(3), 260–266 (2005) (discussion 267–269).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Smith, G. L. et al. Racial disparities in the use of radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery: A national medicare study. Cancer 116(3), 734–741 (2010).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Baehr, A., Peña, J. C. & Hu, D. J. Racial and ethnic disparities in adverse drug events: A systematic review of the literature. J. Racial. Ethn. Health Dispar. 2(4), 527–536 (2015).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Wright, C. B. et al. Race/ethnic disparities in mild cognitive impairment and dementia: The northern manhattan study. J. Alzheimers Dis. 80(3), 1129–1138 (2021).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Martino, S. C. et al. Racial/ethnic disparities in medicare beneficiaries’ care coordination experiences. Med. Care. 54(8), 765–771 (2016).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hicks, L. S. et al. Is hospital service associated with racial and ethnic disparities in experiences with hospital care?. Am. J. Med. 118(5), 529–535 (2005).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Bach, P. B., Pham, H. H., Schrag, D., Tate, R. C. & Hargraves, J. L. Primary care physicians who treat blacks and whites. N. Engl. J. Med. 351(6), 575–584 (2004).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Hall, W. J. et al. Implicit racial/ethnic bias among health care professionals and its influence on health care outcomes: A systematic review. Am. J. Public Health 105(12), e60-76 (2015).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Shen, M. J. et al. The effects of race and racial concordance on patient-physician communication: A systematic review of the literature. J. Racial Ethn. Health Dispar. 5(1), 117–140 (2018).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Jatoi, I., Sung, H. & Jemal, A. The emergence of the racial disparity in U.S. breast-cancer mortality. N. Engl. J. Med. 386(25), 2349–2352 (2022).

    Article 

    Google Scholar
     

  • Yedjou, C. G. et al. Health and racial disparity in breast cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1152, 31–49 (2019).

    Article 
    CAS 

    Google Scholar